Fine grey powder used as a pozzolanic additive in mortars, plasters, renders and grouts.
PFA is composed of inorganic material with a small proportion of carbon particles resulting from the incomplete combustion of the parent fuel, coal. PFA is extracted from the flue gases discharged from the combustion furnace of a coal-fired power station by electrostatic and mechanical processes.
3. Hazards Identification.
PFA is not considered to be hazardous, but should be handled in accordance with good occupational hygiene and safety practices.
4. First Aid Measures.
If inhalation of the dust causes irritation of the nose or coughing remove the patient into fresh air. Keep warm and at rest. Carefully remove any excess dust from nasal passages and rinse mouth with water until clear. If symptoms persist obtain medical advice.
If the substance has entered the eyes, irrigate with emergency eye wash solution, if available, or clean water for up to 15 minutes. Obtain medical advice if any pain or redness persists.
Wash skin with soap and water, and use protective creams against allergic symptoms.
5. Fire Fighting Measures:
There are no risks of fire or explosion as the product is identified as non-combustible.
6. Accidental Release Measures:
Avoid creating dust. Applying a fine water spray can reduce the potential for dust blow. Wear respiratory protective equipment in case of exposure to high level of airborne dust.
Spillage: Recover powder by vacuum and dispose (landfill) in accordance with the waste regulations as non hazardous waste. Wet PFA on floor can be a slipping hazard.
7. Handling and Storage.
Use appropriate engineering controls to avoid creating dust. Handle in ventilated areas and prevent dust diffusion,
Store in sealed bags or tubs in dry covered storage. Protect from air and rain.
8. Exposure Controls/ Personal Protection.
Provide adequate ventilation.
Maintain good standards of industrial hygiene.
Respiratory protection: Avoid inhaling dust. Wear mask during mixing.
Hand Protection: Barrier creams may help but are no substitute for full physical protection.
Eye Protection: Wear eye protection at all times. Provide eye-wash.
9. Physical and Chemical Properties.
Melting point: Not applicable
Boiling point: Not applicable.
Oxidising properties: Not applicable.
Solubility: Less than 2%
Specific Gravity: 1.5 to 2.0
10. Environmental/ecological Information.
No specific adverse effect known.
PFA is classed as ‘Controlled Wastes’ in the UK and have no special requirements for their disposal at appropriately licensed facilities. It is also a ‘Green List’ material for Trans-frontier shipment.
Do not allow lime mortar containing PFA to enter drains, septic tanks or water-courses.
Non-hazardous. Not dangerous for transport.
Always transport in sealed containers that are secure.
13. Toxicological Information
Eyes: Due to the reaction with moisture in the eye, irritation of the conjunctiva occurs if dust remains in contact with the eye.
Skin: Dry PFA will have little effect on the skin. However, when moist it is alkaline and prolonged or repeated contact can cause abrasion and irritant dermatitis.
Ingestion: There are no known adverse effects following ingestion.
Inhalation: After 60 years of exposure experience there is no clinical evidence of a significant risk of harm to the respiratory tract or lungs.
According to the current state of the art, worker protection against silicosis would be consistently assured by respecting present regulatory occupational limits.
14. Other Information
HSE, Pulverised Fuel Ash, Criteria Document for an Occupational Exposure Limit, HMSO c20 11/92, ISBN 0 11 886391 6
UK REACH Competent Authority Information Leaflet 13 – REACH and SDS – Sept. 2010